Literals and operators

Integers `1`, floats `1.2`, characters `'a'`, strings `"abc"`, booleans `true` and the unit type `()` can be expressed using literals.

Integers can, alternatively, be expressed using hexadecimal, octal or binary notation using either of these prefixes: `0x`, `0o` or `0b`.

Underscores can be inserted in numeric literals to improve readability, e.g. `1_000` is the same as `1000`, and `0.000_001` is the same as `0.000001`.

We need to tell the compiler the type of the literals we use. For now, we'll use the `u32` suffix to indicate that the literal is an unsigned 32-bit integer, and the `i32` suffix to indicate that it's a signed 32-bit integer.

The operators available and their precedence in Rust are similar to other C-like languages.

``````fn main() {
println!("1 + 2 = {}", 1u32 + 2);

// Integer subtraction
println!("1 - 2 = {}", 1i32 - 2);
// TODO ^ Try changing `1i32` to `1u32` to see why the type is important

// Short-circuiting boolean logic
println!("true AND false is {}", true && false);
println!("true OR false is {}", true || false);
println!("NOT true is {}", !true);

// Bitwise operations
println!("0011 AND 0101 is {:04b}", 0b0011u32 & 0b0101);
println!("0011 OR 0101 is {:04b}", 0b0011u32 | 0b0101);
println!("0011 XOR 0101 is {:04b}", 0b0011u32 ^ 0b0101);
println!("1 << 5 is {}", 1u32 << 5);
println!("0x80 >> 2 is 0x{:x}", 0x80u32 >> 2);

// Use underscores to improve readability!
println!("One million is written as {}", 1_000_000u32);
}
``````