Rust by Example

8.2.2 As input parameters

While Rust chooses how to capture variables on the fly mostly without type annotation, this ambiguity is not allowed when writing functions. When taking a closure as an input parameter, the closure's complete type must be annotated using one of a few traits. In order of decreasing restriction, they are:

  • Fn: the closure captures by reference (&T)
  • FnMut: the closure captures by mutable reference (&mut T)
  • FnOnce: the closure captures by value (T)

On a variable-by-variable basis, the compiler will capture variables in the least restrictive manner possible.

For instance, consider a parameter annotated as FnOnce. This specifies that the closure may capture by &T, &mut T, or T, but the compiler will ultimately choose based on how the captured variables are used in the closure.

This is because if a move is possible, then any type of borrow should also be possible. Note that the reverse is not true. If the parameter is annotated as Fn, then capturing variables by &mut T or T are not allowed.

In the following example, try swapping the usage of Fn, FnMut, and FnOnce to see what happens:

// A function which takes a closure as an argument and calls it.
fn apply<F>(f: F) where
    // The closure takes no input and returns nothing.
    F: FnOnce() {
    // ^ TODO: Try changing this to `Fn` or `FnMut`.


// A function which takes a closure and returns an `i32`.
fn apply_to_3<F>(f: F) -> i32 where
    // The closure takes an `i32` and returns an `i32`.
    F: Fn(i32) -> i32 {


fn main() {
    use std::mem;

    let greeting = "hello";
    // A non-copy type.
    // `to_owned` creates owned data from borrowed one
    let mut farewell = "goodbye".to_owned();

    // Capture 2 variables: `greeting` by reference and
    // `farewell` by value.
    let diary = || {
        // `greeting` is by reference: requires `Fn`.
        println!("I said {}.", greeting);

        // Mutation forces `farewell` to be captured by
        // mutable reference. Now requires `FnMut`.
        println!("Then I screamed {}.", farewell);
        println!("Now I can sleep. zzzzz");

        // Manually calling drop forces `farewell` to
        // be captured by value. Now requires `FnOnce`.

    // Call the function which applies the closure.

    // `double` satisfies `apply_to_3`'s trait bound
    let double = |x| 2 * x;

    println!("3 doubled: {}", apply_to_3(double));

See also:

std::mem::drop, Fn, FnMut, and FnOnce