Rust by Example

18.6 Filesystem Operations

The std::io::fs module contains several functions that deal with the filesystem.

// fs.rs
use std::fs;
use std::fs::{File, OpenOptions};
use std::io;
use std::io::prelude::*;
use std::os::unix;
use std::path::Path;

// A simple implementation of `% cat path`
fn cat(path: &Path) -> io::Result<String> {
    let mut f = try!(File::open(path));
    let mut s = String::new();
    match f.read_to_string(&mut s) {
        Ok(_) => Ok(s),
        Err(e) => Err(e),
    }
}

// A simple implementation of `% echo s > path`
fn echo(s: &str, path: &Path) -> io::Result<()> {
    let mut f = try!(File::create(path));

    f.write_all(s.as_bytes())
}

// A simple implementation of `% touch path` (ignores existing files)
fn touch(path: &Path) -> io::Result<()> {
    match OpenOptions::new().create(true).write(true).open(path) {
        Ok(_) => Ok(()),
        Err(e) => Err(e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    println!("`mkdir a`");
    // Create a directory, returns `io::Result<()>`
    match fs::create_dir("a") {
        Err(why) => println!("! {:?}", why.kind()),
        Ok(_) => {},
    }

    println!("`echo hello > a/b.txt`");
    // The previous match can be simplified using the `unwrap_or_else` method
    echo("hello", &Path::new("a/b.txt")).unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
    });

    println!("`mkdir -p a/c/d`");
    // Recursively create a directory, returns `io::Result<()>`
    fs::create_dir_all("a/c/d").unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
    });

    println!("`touch a/c/e.txt`");
    touch(&Path::new("a/c/e.txt")).unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
    });

    println!("`ln -s ../b.txt a/c/b.txt`");
    // Create a symbolic link, returns `io::Result<()>`
    if cfg!(target_family = "unix") {
        unix::fs::symlink("../b.txt", "a/c/b.txt").unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
        });
    }

    println!("`cat a/c/b.txt`");
    match cat(&Path::new("a/c/b.txt")) {
        Err(why) => println!("! {:?}", why.kind()),
        Ok(s) => println!("> {}", s),
    }

    println!("`ls a`");
    // Read the contents of a directory, returns `io::Result<Vec<Path>>`
    match fs::read_dir("a") {
        Err(why) => println!("! {:?}", why.kind()),
        Ok(paths) => for path in paths {
            println!("> {:?}", path.unwrap().path());
        },
    }

    println!("`rm a/c/e.txt`");
    // Remove a file, returns `io::Result<()>`
    fs::remove_file("a/c/e.txt").unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
    });

    println!("`rmdir a/c/d`");
    // Remove an empty directory, returns `io::Result<()>`
    fs::remove_dir("a/c/d").unwrap_or_else(|why| {
        println!("! {:?}", why.kind());
    });
}

Here's the expected successful output:

$ rustc fs.rs && ./fs
`mkdir a`
`echo hello > a/b.txt`
`mkdir -p a/c/d`
`touch a/c/e.txt`
`ln -s ../b.txt a/c/b.txt`
`cat a/c/b.txt`
> hello
`ls a`
> a/b.txt
> a/c
`walk a`
> a/c
> a/c/b.txt
> a/c/e.txt
> a/c/d
> a/b.txt
`rm a/c/e.txt`
`rmdir a/c/d`

And the final state of the a directory is:

$ tree a
a
|-- b.txt
`-- c
    `-- b.txt -> ../b.txt

1 directory, 2 files

See also:

cfg!