Rust by Example

9.4 super and self

The super and self keywords can be used in the path to remove ambiguity when accessing items and to prevent unnecessary hardcoding of paths.

fn function() {
    println!("called `function()`");
}

mod cool {
    pub fn function() {
        println!("called `cool::function()`");
    }
}

mod my {
    fn function() {
        println!("called `my::function()`");
    }

    mod cool {
        pub fn function() {
            println!("called `my::cool::function()`");
        }
    }

    pub fn indirect_call() {
        // Let's access all the functions named `function` from this scope!
        print!("called `my::indirect_call()`, that\n> ");

        // The `self` keyword refers to the current module scope - in this case `my`.
        // Calling `self::function()` and calling `function()` directly both give
        // the same result, because they refer to the same function.
        self::function();
        function();

        // We can also use `self` to access another module inside `my`:
        self::cool::function();

        // The `super` keyword refers to the parent scope (outside the `my` module).
        super::function();

        // This will bind to the `cool::function` in the *crate* scope.
        // In this case the crate scope is the outermost scope.
        {
            use cool::function as root_function;
            root_function();
        }
    }
}

fn main() {
    my::indirect_call();
}