Rust by Example

3.1 Structures

There are three types of structures ("structs") that can be created using the struct keyword:

  • Tuple structs, which are, basically, named tuples.
  • The classic C structs
  • Unit structs, which are field-less, are useful for generics.
// A unit struct
struct Nil;

// A tuple struct
struct Pair(i32, f32);

// A struct with two fields
struct Point {
    x: f32,
    y: f32,
}

// Structs can be reused as fields of another struct
#[allow(dead_code)]
struct Rectangle {
    p1: Point,
    p2: Point,
}

fn main() {
    // Instantiate a `Point`
    let point: Point = Point { x: 0.3, y: 0.4 };

    // Access the fields of the point
    println!("point coordinates: ({}, {})", point.x, point.y);

    // Destructure the point using a `let` binding
    let Point { x: my_x, y: my_y } = point;

    let _rectangle = Rectangle {
        // struct instantiation is an expression too
        p1: Point { x: my_y, y: my_x },
        p2: point,
    };

    // Instantiate a unit struct
    let _nil = Nil;

    // Instantiate a tuple struct
    let pair = Pair(1, 0.1);

    // Access the fields of a tuple struct
    println!("pair contains {:?} and {:?}", pair.0, pair.1);

    // Destructure a tuple struct
    let Pair(integer, decimal) = pair;

    println!("pair contains {:?} and {:?}", integer, decimal);
}

Activity

  1. Add a function rect_area which calculates the area of a rectangle (try using nested destructuring).
  2. Add a function square which takes a Point and a f32 as arguments, and returns a Rectangle with its lower left corner on the point, and a width and height corresponding to the f32.

See also:

attributes and destructuring